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For, says the scripture, "Jacob, looking up with his eyes, saw the goats and rams leaping upon the shegoats and upon the sheep. Such then are the leaders of the flocks in us, namely, reasons; and the flocks themselves, resembling the sheep and goats whose names they bear, rush forwards and hasten with zeal and earnestness towards justice.
And he beheld how they leap upon the sheep and the goats, that is on those souls which are still young and tender, and in the vigour of youth, and beautiful in the flower of their age; not pursuing irrational pleasure, but indulging in the invisible sowing of the doctrines of prudence. Therefore do all ye right reasons of wisdom leap up, form connections, sow seed, and pass by no soul which you see rich and fertile, and welldisposed, and virgin; but inviting it to association and connection with you, render it perfect and pregnant; for so you will become the parents of all kinds of good things, of a male offspring, white, variegated, ring-straked, and speckled.
Again, by the statement that some are variegated, what is meant is, not that the flocks are marked by such a multiform and various spottedness as to resemble the unclean leprosy, and which is an emblem of a life unsteady and tossed about in any direction by reason of the fickleness of the mind, but only that they have marks drawn in regular lines and different characters, shaped and impressed with all kinds of well approved forms, the peculiarities of which, being multiplied together and combined properly, will produce a musical harmony.
But I admire not only the art itself, but the name likewise, and most especially so when I look upon the divisions of the earth and the spheres in heaven, and the differences between various plants and various animals, and that most variegated texture, I mean the world; 1. And the most beautiful and varied work of God, this world, has been created in this its present state of perfection by all-wise knowledge; and how can it be anything but right to receive the art of variegating as a noble effort of knowledge?
For after the white sheep he immediately beheld the variegated animals, stamped with the impression of instruction. But, in the case of him who is perfect, they also appear to be perfect. And in what manner they appear so we will examine. For the wise Abraham also, when he went forth to converse with God, pronounced himself to be dust and ashes.
In the second place, it enjoins him to put on a tunic reaching down to his feet, and the variouslyembroidered thing which was called his breastplate, an image and representation of the lightgiving stars which appear in heaven. The other is the rational soul, the priest of which is the real true man, the copy of whom, perceptible to the senses, is he who performs his paternal vows and sacrifices, to whom it is enjoined to put on the aforesaid tunic, the representation of the universal heaven, in order that the world may join with the man in offering sacrifice, and that the man may likewise co-operate with the universe.
We will now proceed to explain the third and most perfect kind, which is denominated thoroughly white. When this same high priest enters into the innermost parts of the holy temple, he is clothed in the variegated garment, and he also assumes another linen robe, made of the very finest flax. For such a veil is a thing very difficult to be broken, and it is made of nothing mortal, and when it is properly and carefully purified it has a most clear and brilliant appearance.
In the next place, he aims at immortality, laughing at the blind inventions with which mortals delude themselves.
City of Dreams
And last of all, he shines with the unclouded and most brilliant light of truth, no longer desiring any of the things which belong to false opinion, which prefer darkness rather than light. But he who is desirous of the administration of human affairs, by name Joseph, does not, as it appears, claim for himself any of the extreme characteristics, but only that variegated one which is in the middle between the others. But being clothed in the much-variegated web of political affairs, with which the smallest possible portion of truth is mixed up; and also many and large portions of plausible, probable, and likely falsehoods, from which all the sophists of Egypt, and all the augurs, and ventriloquists, and sorcerers spring; men skilful in juggling, and in incantations, and in tricks of all kinds, from whose treacherous arts it is very difficult to escape.
Do not be alarmed at those who look with admiration upon him; and you will find many diseases lurking within him, and you will see that he is entangled in many disasters, and that fortune is dragging him violently in different directions, though he bends his neck the other way, and resists, although invisibly, and in fact that fortune is seeking to overthrow and destroy him; or else the people themselves are impatient at his supremacy, or he is exposed to the attacks of some more powerful rival.
But it is not right for the man who anchors on the hope of the alliance of God to crouch and tremble, to whom God says, "I am the God who was seen by thee in the place of God. And do not pass by what is here said, but examine it accurately, and see whether there are really two Gods. For it is said: "I am the God who was seen by thee;" not in my place, but in the place of God, as if he meant of some other God. There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God ho Theos ;" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God tou Theou , but simply "of God" Theou ; 1.
But now the mind begins to be improved, so as to be able to contemplate the governor of all the powers; 1. For as soon as you have learnt this art, you will become the leader of a flock, not of one which is destitute of marks, and of reason, and of docility, but of one which is well approved, and rational, and beautiful, 1. BOOK 2 I. Now this third species of dreams exists, whenever in sleep the mind being set in motion by itself, and agitating itself, is filled with frenzy and inspiration, so as to predict future events by a certain prophetic power.
The second kind was when our own intellect was set in motion simultaneously with the soul of the universe, and became filled with divine madness, by means of which it is allowed to prognosticate events which are about to happen; 2. Of the visions according to the second species he speaks neither very clearly nor very obscurely; an instance of which is afforded by the vision which was exhibited of the ladder reaching up to heaven; for this version was an enigmatical one; nevertheless, the meaning was not hidden from those who were able to see with any great acuteness.
At all events all the dreams of this class, which are recorded by the lawgiver, are interpreted by men who are skilled in the aforesaid art. Surely every one must see to those of Joseph, and of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to those which the chief baker and chief butler saw themselves; 2. Now the first dreams are those which Joseph beheld, receiving two visions from the two parts of the world, heaven and earth.
From the earth the dream about the harvest; and that is as follows, "I thought that we were all binding sheaves in the middle of the field; and my sheaf stood Up. Some persons have extended the nature of good over many things, and others have attributed it to the most excellent Being alone; some again have mixed it with other things, while others have spoken of it as unalloyed. And they who act thus are persons of a somewhat effeminate and luxurious way of life, being bred up the greater part of their time, from their earliest infancy, in the women's apartments and among the effeminate race which is found in the women's apartments.
But those who argue differently are men inclined to a harder regimen, being bred up from their boyhood among men, and being themselves men in their minds, embracing what is right in preference to what is pleasant, and devoting themselves to nourishment fit for athletes for the sake of strength and vigour, not of pleasure. The leader of the noble and good company is the self-taught and self-instructed Isaac; for he records that he was weaned, not choosing to avail himself at all of tender, and milk-like, and childish, and infantine food, but only of such as was vigorous and perfect, inasmuch as he was formed by nature, from his very infancy, for acts of virtue, and was always in the prime and vigour of youth and energy.
But the leader of the company, which yields and which is inclined to softer measures, is Joseph; 2. For there appears in him a rational species of continence, which is of the masculine kind, being fashioned in accordance with his father Jacob; 2. There appears in him also the seed of bodily pleasures, which his association with the chief butlers, and chief bakers, and chief cooks has stamped upon him. There is, also visible the seed of vain opinion, on which he mounts as on a chariot by reason of his levity, being puffed up, and elated, and raising himself to a height to the destruction of equality.
But each of his dreams must be investigated with accuracy; and first of all we must examine the one about the sheaves. For since the excellencies which were to be celebrated by them differed from one another, it followed of necessity that the melodies and symphonies should likewise differ from one another.
The combined symphony being assigned to the world, which is a compound creation, composed of many different parts; and the disjoined melody being appropriated to him who, as to his essence, is separated from every creature, namely, to God. There are also a countless host of differences between those who gather and take up the sheaves in their hand, so that it is impossible to mention or even to imagine them all.
Still it is not out of place to describe a few of them by way of example, which he too mentioned, when he was recounting his dream. Reuben is an emblem of natural acuteness, for he is called "the son who sees," being in so far as he is a son not perfect, but in so far as he is endowed with the faculty of sight and sees acutely, he is naturally well qualified. Judas is an emblem of songs and hymns addressed to God. Issachar, of wages which are given for good work; but perhaps the works themselves are their own perfect reward. Zabulon is a symbol of light, since his name means the departure of night; and when the night departs and leaves us, then of necessity light arises.
Gad is an emblem of the invasion of pirates, and of a counter attack made upon them. Asser is a symbol of natural wealth, for his name being interpreted, signifies "a calling blessed," since wealth is accounted a blessed possession. For which reason it is originally by his dreams, which are things dear to night, that he is made known to the king of the bodily country, and not by any performance of conspicuous actions, which require day for their exhibition. All which things are in the eye of wisdom, if that were the judge, more inglorious and more ridiculous than even defeat and dishonour.
Moreover, he assumes a ring, a royal gift which is no gift, a pledge devoid of good faith, the very contrary gift to that which was given to the same Thamar by Judah the son of the seeing king, Israel; 2. And he is regulator of the provisions, laying up and preserving the treasures for the body, and providing it with food from all quarters: and this is a very formidable fortification against the soul. We are nourished by meat and drink, even though the meat be the most ordinary corn, and the drink plain water from the stream. Moreover, besides this, vain opinion has added to it an infinite number of varieties of cakes, and cheese-cakes, and sweetmeats, and costly and various mixtures of an indescribable multitude of wines, for the enjoyment of pleasure rather than for a participation in necessary food properly prepared.
But the epicure is eager not only for such things as these, but he takes vain opinion for his ally, and excites the gluttonous passions which are within him, and seeks out and hunts all about for confectioners and pastrycooks of high reputation in their art. Then, immediately they circumvent that foundation of the outward senses, the taste, by means of which the banquet-hunter in a very short time is rendered a slave instead of a free man.
Who cares about transparent and thin summer robes? Who wishes for a garment delicate as a spider's web? Who is eager to have embroidered for him apparel flowered over with dyes and brocaded figures, by those who are skilful in sewing and weaving cunning embroidery, and are superior in their handwork to the imitative skill of the painter? Who, I say? Who, but vain opinion. Why is it, then, that we adorn the pavements and floors with costly stones? And why do we travel over Asia, and Africa, and all Europe, and the islands, searching for pillars and capitals, and architraves, and selecting them with reference to their superior beauty?
And why do we furnish our chambers for men and for women with golden ornaments? Is it not all from our being influenced by vain opinion? The contriver of all which is again the same vain opinion. For that softens the limbs, and relieves the labour of the body, and produces a good condition of the flesh; and if anything has got relaxed or flabby, it binds it again, and makes it firm and solid, and it fills us with vigour and strength of muscle, no less than any other unguent.
Now such a cup our own hands supply, which, if any one brings together and forms into a hollow, applying them closely to his mouth, while another pours in the liquid to be drank, he gets not only a remedy for his thirst, but also a most indescribable pleasure. And what can be the use of providing a countless multitude of gold and silver goblets, it if be not for the gratification of boastful and vain-glorious arrogance, and of vain opinion raising itself to an undue height?
And what can we think of such men, but that they are slaves of vain opinion, in spite of their asserting themselves not only to be free, but even to be rulers over many other persons? For who is there who has not heard, or who has not seen, such men as these? Who is there who does not associate with, and who is not familiar with them? So that the sacred scripture has very appropriately named "addition" the enemy of simplicity and the companion of pride; 2. Therefore grief will be added to them, even while they are alive, as though they were dead, since they have a life worthy of lamentation and mourning, since Jacob mourns for Joseph, even while he is alive.
But do thou go forth beyond the reach of the smoke and the tempest, and flee from the ridiculous pursuits of mortal life as a fearful whirlpool, and do not, as the proverb has it, touch them even with the tip of thy finger. For that which vows the vow--that which is full of gratitude--that which offers such sacrifices as are truly without spot, is one thing only, namely, the soul.
What is the fine wheaten flour, a symbol of the mind purified by the suggestions of instruction, which is able to render the friend of education free from all disease, and life free from all reproach? For inasmuch as the good man is a spectator, not only of human life but also of all the things which exist in the world, he knows how many things are accustomed to be caused by necessity, and chance, and opportunity, and violence, and authority; and what numbers of propositions, and what great instances of prosperity proceeding onwards with rapidity towards heaven, the same causes have shaken and overthrown; 2.
Do they not perceive that they have not only put their necks under the yoke like brute beasts, but that they have also surrendered and betrayed their whole bodies and souls likewise, and their wives and their children, and their parents, and all the rest of the numerous kindred and community of their other relations?
And is it not lawful for the charioteer, and also for the passenger, with all freedom to spur, and to urge forward, and to check, and to hold back, according as he desires to arrange things, so as to make them greater or smaller. What do you mean? Does anyone, when he sees a storm at its height, and a violent gale opposing him, and a hurricane raging tempestuously, and the sea full of vast waves, when he ought to anchor his ship, does anyone, I say, at such a moment weigh anchor and put to sea?
For, if he had been inclined to meet with a voyage free from danger, it was in his power to wait for calm weather and a smooth and favourable breeze. Therefore the wise Abraham will offer adoration to the sons of Cheth, and their name being interpreted, means "admiring," because the occasion persuades him to do so. Do not we also, when we are spending our time in the market-place, frequently wonder at the masters, and also at the beasts of burden? But we wonder at these two classes, with different and not the same feelings. For we look upon the masters with honour, and upon the beasts of burden with fear, lest some injury should be done to us by them.
Perhaps, indeed, you may make yourself master of such as are weak people, but with respect to us who are strong you will be looked upon us as a subject. For when right reason is powerful in the soul, vain opinion is put down; but when right reason is weak, vain opinion is strong. As long, therefore, as the soul has its own power still safe, and as long as it is not mutilated in any part of it, it may well have confidence to attack and aim its arrows at the pride which resists it, and it may indulge in freedom of speech, saying, "You shall not be a king, you shall not be a lord either over us, or during our lifetime over others; 2.
In reference to which circumstances it is said, "They began to hate him because of his dreams and because of his words. And the one class are worthy of hatred as being false, and the other class deserve friendship as being full of desirable and lovely truth. And why should you be a lord and lord it over us? But at present I will drive from me and hate that dreamer no less than they do; for no one in his senses could blame me for this, that the majority of opinions and votes does always prevail; 2. But I who am the follower of these men, for I have learnt to obey them as a servant obeys his master, will never cease to praise him for his change of mind.
It is time now to consider the other vision; and to examine how that is interpreted by the art of the explanation of dreams. And his father rebuked him, and said, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I, and thy mother, and thy brethren, come forward and advance, and fall down to the earth and worship thee? And his brethren were jealous of him; but his father regarded his Words. And that the sun and the moon are always revolving around it, and go through each of the animals, not indeed with equal rapidity, but in unequal numbers and periods; the one doing so in thirty days, and the other in as near as may be a twelfth part of that time, that is in two days and a half; 2.
And they also, said he, contend with one another for precedence, and those which are the greater claim to be attended by the lesser stars as their guards; 2. But we say, that the lover of indiscriminate study, and unreasonable contention, and vain opinion, being always puffed up by folly, wishes to assert a precedence, not only over men, but also above the nature of all existing things; 2. Now the part of the whole is the man, so that he is properly asserted to have been made for the sake of perfecting the world in which he is rightly classed.
And again, one should grieve at the sight of such men, and fear, and flee out of fear at their attacks, and submit to all the affections of the soul which are conversant with pleasures and pains. Is he not an evil of an extraordinary nature? He surely must be some foreign calamity, brought from over the sea, or from some other world, since he, a man in every respect miserable, has dared to compare himself to the all-blessed God.
Let us now in turn look at their followers by themselves. These men are always laying plots against the practisers of virtue, and when they see them labouring to make their own life pure with guileless truth, and to exhibit it, as one may say, to the light of the moon, or of the sun, as able to stand inspection, they endeavor by deceit, or even by open violence, to hinder them, trying to drive them into the sunless country of impious men, which is occupied by deep night, and endless darkness, and ten thousand tribes of images, and appearances, and dreams, and then, having thrust them down thither, they compel them to fall down and worship them as masters.
For he will say, I did not see it intentionally, why do you bring accusations against me, for errors which I have not committed from any deliberate purpose? I have related to you what fell upon me and made an impression on my mind suddenly, and without my desiring it. And shall the soul, which is both the mother and nurse of the company devoted to learning virtuous instruction, also come to thee?
And are we all to stand in a row, laying aside all our former dignity, and holding up our hands and praying to thee?
And are we then to prostrate ourselves on the ground, and endeavour to propitiate and adore thee? But may the sun never shine upon such transactions, since deep darkness is suited to evil deeds, and brilliant light to good deeds. And what could be a greater evil than for pride, that deceiver and beguiler, to be praised and admired, instead of sincere and honest simplicity? He is happy who has not often been so. And for whom has not fortune laid snares, blowing upon him at intervals, and collecting its strength, that it may twine itself around him, and speedily carry him off before its adversary is ready for the contest?
But then, being filled with profound peace in themselves, which is real peace, and the archetypal model of that which exists in cities, and being considered happy on that account, because they have never had a notion, not even in a dream, of the intestine war which arises from the violence of the passions, and which is the most piteous of all wars, have at last, at the very close of their lives, run on shore and made shipwreck, either through some intemperance of language or some insatiable gluttony, or some incontinent licentiousness of the parts below the belly.
Do we not think that even in ourselves there is a herd of irrational cattle, inasmuch as the irrational multitude of the soul is deprived of reason, and that the shepherd is the governing mind? But as long as that is vigorous and competent to act as the manager of the herd, everything goes on in a just, and prosperous, and advantageous manner; 2.
And this is such a state as is consistent with reason. Now, the different species of gluttony are conversant about drinking and eating. But the one has no need of any great variety, while the other requires a countless number of seasonings and sauces. These things, then, are referred to two managers. The matters relating to excessive drinking are referred to the chief butler, and those which belong to luxurious eating to the chief baker.
And each of them sees in his vision what relates to his own business: the one sees wine and the plant which engenders wine, namely the vine; the other sees white bread lying on dishes, and himself serving up the Dishes. Hyde in this context. The German chemist August Kekule von Stradonitz attributed his interpretation of the ring structure of the benzene molecule to his dream of a snake with its tail in its mouth.
In all of these cases, the dreamers reported having thought about the same topics over considerable periods while they were awake. He held this theory throughout his career, even mentioning it in his last published statement on dreams, printed about one year before his death.
He also offered a theoretical explanation for the bizarre nature of dreams, invented a system for their interpretation, and elaborated on their curative potential. Freud theorized that thinking during sleep tends to be primitive and regressive. Repressed wishes, particularly those associated with sex and hostility, were said to be released in dreams when the inhibitory demands of wakefulness diminished.
The content of the dream was said to derive from such stimuli as urinary pressure in the bladder, traces of experiences from the previous day day residues , and associated infantile memories. The specific dream details were called their manifest content; the presumably repressed wishes being expressed were called the latent content. Freud suggested that the dreamer kept himself from waking and avoided unpleasant awareness of repressed wishes by disguising them as bizarre manifest content in an effort called dreamwork.
He held that impulses one fails to satisfy when awake are expressed in dreams as sensory images and scenes. In dreaming, Freud believed:. All of the linguistic instruments…of subtle thought are dropped…and abstract terms are taken back to the concrete. Freud submitted that one aspect of manifest content could come to represent a number of latent elements and vice versa through a process called condensation. Further displacement of emotional attitudes toward one object or person theoretically could be displaced in dreaming to another object or person or not appear in the dream at all.
Freud further observed a process called secondary elaboration, which occurs when people wake and try to remember dreams. In seeking the latent meaning of a dream, Freud advised the individual to associate freely about it. Dreams thus represented another source of free association in psychoanalysis. From listening to the associations, the analyst was supposed to determine what the dream represented, in part through an understanding of the personal needs of the dreamer. Using this information, the analyst could help the patient overcome inhibitions that were identified through dreamwork. See Sigmund Freud: The interpretation of dreams.
Unlike Freud, Carl Jung — did not view dreams as complementary to waking mental life with respect to specific instinctual impulses. Jung believed that dreams were instead compensatory, that they balanced whatever elements of character were underrepresented in the way people live their lives. This function is carried out unconsciously in sleep when people are living emotionally well-balanced lives.
If this is not the case, there may be first bad moods and then symptoms in waking. Then and only then do dreams need to be interpreted. This is best done not with a single dream and multiple free associations but with a series of dreams so that the repetitive elements become apparent.
Since antiquity, dreams have been viewed as a source of divination, as a form of reality, as a curative force, and as an extension or adjunct of the waking state. Contemporary research focuses on efforts to discover and describe unique, complex biochemical and neurophysiological bases of dreaming. Psychoanalytic theorists emphasize the individual meaningfulness of dreams and their relation to personal hopes and fears.
Other perspectives assert that dreams convey supernatural meaning, and some regard dreaming as nothing more than the normal activity of the nervous system. Such variety reflects the lack of any single, all-encompassing theory about the nature or purpose of dreams. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
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Efforts to study dreaming
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In what many commentators consider his master work, Die Traumdeutung published in , but given the date of the dawning century…. Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. In what many commentators consider his master work, Die Traumdeutung published in , but given the date of the dawning century to emphasize its epochal character; The Interpretation of Dream s , he presented his findings.
Interspersing evidence from his own dreams with evidence from those…. Non-artists would occasionally describe their dream creatures to a designated artist so that they could be recorded on hide, in wood, or in stone. But since these supernatural visions were extremely personal, they were usually recorded by the individual himself; hence, they vary tremendously in aesthetic quality. Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis. Freud may justly be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age.
His creation of psychoanalysis was at once a theory of…. Oneiromancy, prophetic divination from dreams, considered a divine act in most ancient cultures and surviving to modern times in certain folk traditions. Oneiromancy is based on the belief that dreams are messages sent to the soul by gods or the dead, most often as warnings. In the highly…. Sleep, a normal, reversible, recurrent state of reduced responsiveness to external stimulation that is accompanied by complex and predictable changes in physiology.
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Introduction Efforts to study dreaming Dream reports Physiological dream research Dreamlike activities Diverse views on the nature of dreams Dreams as reflecting reality Dreams as a source of divination Dreams as curative Dreams as extensions of the waking state Psychoanalytic interpretations Conclusion.
Dreams of Stone
Tips For Editing. A desire, perhaps caused by situations related to this consumption and experienced by the respondents. These dreams occur precisely because of the desire to use. This desire is disguised in a dream, and in the dream, we desire and use it. SO3 -H According to reports, the drug has emerged in dreams in various contexts. Sometimes indirectly, that is, only the consumption environment, or even crack cocaine preparation ritual.
In other cases, the respondent revealed the presence of crack cocaine in the dream, that is, he had direct contact with the drug. They reported dreams, which despite referring to crack cocaine use, the situations experienced were bizarre and fanciful stories, which often surprised the respondents. Although they did not reproduce reality, these dreams brought about crack cocaine as the central focus of the plot, making the user, albeit in withdrawal, come in contact with the drug.
I had a dream with those trucks that carry those marble stones the size of a container. I was carrying one of these, but it was a crack cocaine stone the size of the container. Moreover, I was with a chainsaw trying to cut the stone and when I started to cut, I woke up. Dreams were also described involving new crack cocaine use-related experiences and experiments. Some users reported dreams whose plot involved situations contrary to their reality, such as drug use in the presence of relatives.
I dreamed that I was smoking a crack cocaine stone next to my wife, which I do not usually do. I was sitting in the armchair in the living room, next to her, smoking a crack cocaine stone. This was a very striking dream because I did not use the drug next to her. Although most of the reported dreams have had the presence of crack cocaine, there have also been reports of dreams where the drug was not part of the plot. However, the situations experienced in the dream were the same ones that the user faced to obtain the drug.
While not in the dream, the respondent was referred to crack cocaine in the same way. I did not only dream that I was using crack cocaine , but I also saw myself in awkward situations, looking for the crack cocaine stone, in situations of fights, of being arrested by the police. The scenes were about crack cocaine, but the stone was hardly present in the dream. Another characteristic described by the respondents was the presence of the same ritual of preparation and use of when they consumed crack cocaine in dreams.
All the steps were repeated in dreams, from getting money to buy the drug to the details of its preparation. I took the crack cocaine stone; then I did all that process I liked to do, to grind carefully, to mix with coal, the whole process. I diluted it with a little alcohol, mixed it, let it dry, blended with tobacco, all that I used to do The dream I had was perfect in that respect. Very real, right to the point where I put it in my mouth and wake up.
Dreams have aroused positive feelings about pleasure and satisfaction among some respondents, while others have reported feeling fear, frustration, and a feeling of defeat. These feelings were directly linked to the content and the interpretation users assigned to those dreams.
Crack cocaine and dreams: the view of users
For example, some respondents said that the fact that they were unable to consume the drug during the dream seemed to be encouraging regarding the treatment process of their addiction. They interpreted this as evidence that they were overcoming the drug problem. These dreams had a protective role for them since they reinforced withdrawal. I knew I could not use the drug in my dream. I took the drug in my hand, but it gave it to someone else. I even wake up happy to know that I did not use the stone in the dream. What I remember is that I could not use it.
When I was going to, I would wake up. The meaning I give to this is that the will of not using is already established in my consciousness. They reported that the family members who listened to the dream account, without the use of crack cocaine, showed that they were more relaxed, reinforcing the same interpretation provided by the user, that is, the dependence was being overcome.
However, contrary to previous ones, other interviewees reported that not using crack cocaine during dreams triggered the same negative symptoms they experienced in the absence of the drug when they awoke. The craving for the lack of crack cocaine increased the desire to consume it. I never dreamed I was using the drug.
I almost got to use it and, at that very moment, which would be a relief if it happened, putting the icing on the cake, for some reason does not happen. And the fear of sleeping and living it again.
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Much in the same way as the previous accounts, diverging interpretations are found concerning this dream content. Some felt quite fragile, with much guilt and anguish to the point of interpreting dreams as a real possibility of an announced relapse. Although I used the drug in my dream, I do not remember the pleasure: only the anguish, the haunting thought of other people seeing me smoking. Me becoming dirty again, suffering the horror and the pain of relapse.
I intend to take this out of my life and the dream brings me this use back. On the other hand, others did not understand these dreams in the same way, on the contrary, they saw benefit having consumed the drug in the dream and interpreted as a warning, an educational alert. It would be an alert message regarding the possibility of relapse into crack cocaine use.
They began their day to defend their intention to remain in withdrawal firmly. When I dream that I am using the drug, I see it as a warning of what I cannot do in my daily living. The dreams about use, which is the object of this research, are defined as vivid, subjective experiences during sleep, the relevance of which is centered in the fact that they contain drug-related topics, such as elements of the ritual of use, scenes of seeking and consuming the drug, and the like.
These dreams have already been described by other authors who focused on other drugs alcohol, heroin, cocaine, and so forth 14 , 15 , 26 - However, the literature on crack cocaine-related dreams is hardly found, which reinforces the purpose of this work. The results of this study show that the use-related dreams interfere in the daily life of crack cocaine dependence under withdrawal. Considering the potential physical 30 , 31 , psychic 17 , 32 and mainly social 16 , 33 , 34 damages due to crack cocaine consumption, this finding deserves attention, especially when the user initiates recovery and achieves withdrawal.
However, the participants in this study had high schooling, and several of them with higher education, mostly white, with a high average age, and eight of them with formal jobs, characteristics that do not correspond to the status attributed to crack cocaine users These differences show that crack cocaine has advanced to other social classes, breaking the paradigm of the drug exclusively associated with contexts of high social vulnerability, something already disputed by other studies On the other hand, the sample of this study is aligned with the profile established by the national research concerning the predominance of men without family, fruit of the losses that they suffered due to drug consumption 16 , 33 , Participants affirm that dreams occur more frequently soon after the cessation of crack cocaine use, that is, at the onset of withdrawal, coinciding with the findings of other authors when studying dreams and drugs 14 , 23 , 29 , 36 , and they can persist for weeks 14 , 29 , 37 , 12 months, and even 35 years.
Respondents stated that crack cocaine was not always present in the dream, but its content was related to the environment, ritual and sometimes to scenes associated with the drug, situations which are enough for users to develop, upon awakening, signs of craving, leading some to drug use. Tiffany 40 considers that the repeated use of the drug leads the user to develop tracks associating them with consumption smell, images, sounds, and so forth. Authors affirm that when users are exposed to these stimuli conditioned to the use of the drug, a strong desire and need to consume it is triggered in them 16 , Bruehl et al.
On the other hand, when the drug is present in the context of dreams, the responses polarize in two situations: drug use or not during dreams. It is perceived that, although the dream plots in these two cases are similar, the interpretation by the respondents does not follow the same line.
While for some not smoking the drug was a sign of healing from dependence, for others it meant the inability to feel pleasure, leading to an intensification of that desire upon awakening. This last interpretation finds support in the findings of some authors who advocate the idea of increased craving due to these dreams. Araujo et al. Other authors 12 , 28 affirm that the frequency with which these dreams occur could be related to an increased craving, which would encourage returning to the drug. In contrast, consuming the drug during the dream meant defeat for some users.
Guilt, the inability to remain in withdrawal revealed in the dream make them vulnerable and can compromise withdrawal. However, conversely, other users felt empowered with this episode because they distinguished between dream and reality and optimistically interpreted to have found a new way to satiate the desire for the drug, which would be through dreams.
Some researchers believe that drug pleasure achieved in the dream may have a compensatory role that favors withdrawal 14 , We can conclude that crack cocaine-related dreams compel involuntarily and uncontrollably the individual to revive the culture of use, that is, consumption, environments, colleague users, taste, smells and also pleasure. On the other hand, more important than the content of the dream alone, the interpretation that the users give to the dreams seems to be a piece of valuable information that can support possible therapeutic interventions aiming at the relapse prevention.
Pinto JR, Timo-aria C. In: Tufik S, organizador.