Das Kloster der unkeuschen Brüder (German Edition)

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Marrying Jesus: brides and the Bridegroom in medieval women's religious literature Public Deposited. You do not have access to any existing collections. You may create a new collection. MLA Gregory, Rabia. APA Gregory, R. Marrying Jesus: brides and the Bridegroom in medieval women's religious literature. Chicago Gregory, Rabia.

The phrase has become almost a generic descriptor for religious women—especially mystics—yet the function of the relationship between Christ and his beloved is never a constant. Relationships between Christ and pious women did not consist exclusively of a spiritual re-enactment of courtship and marriage in vision or ritual. Medieval chronicles record acts of mayhem and murder committed by noblemen and rulers against each other, subject to retribution through revenge, feud, or warfare.

Unlike the events recounted in later sensationalism, these violent clashes lacked an ordering authority to seal their significance and focus the action on a single miscreant and his punishment. In the early modern period, the increasingly efficient pursuit of criminal justice to secure public order, combined with the new means of communication offered by printing, created the conditions necessary for the development of journalistic accounts of crime.

Books, Kaufmann Felix

By the late fifteenth century, printers had begun publishing topical news reports, and from the mid-sixteenth century, they produced crime reports in increasing numbers. Crime reports were read by clerics, as well. The Zurich pastor Johann Jakob Wick, in the second half of the sixteenth century, compiled the largest extant collection of over broadsides and pamphlets on sensational crimes and other unusual events such as monstrous births and supernatural phenomena. News reports used the new technology to reach a wide audience and soon developed standardized features.

Many were written in rhyme, set to music, and decorated with woodcuts. The core audience, however—the one that made such publications viable for publishers—was the paying audience of purchasers. Given the common assumption, voiced by nineteenth-century critics, that sensationalism panders to the tastes of lower-class, uneducated consumers, it is instructive to note the respectable status of early sensationalism.

The first waves of emotion-laden crime reports were not aimed at masses in the modern sense, but were produced and probably purchased mainly by the literate upper levels of early modern society. Familiarity with written or printed texts was still highly stratified by social class.

Although many such works were published anonymously, others were signed by established clerics and educated burghers. Those with the disposable income to buy these items were far from the bottom of the social scale and were probably limited mainly to the artisan class and above. Thus although the sensationalist focus on shock and emotion later came to be read as a marker of lower-class appeal, this was not the case in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

In early crime accounts there was no attempt at the modern dissociation between feeling and reportage.

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While early news reports on political events served the practical needs of merchants and other elites, sensationalist accounts of crime sought to convey a state of feeling. In the reporting too, conventions emerged that heightened the emotional triggers inherent in the material.

Such features as emphasis on familial relationships, graphic descriptions of violence, and the inclusion of direct dialogue worked along with emotive language to enhance visceral effect. These techniques are explored in more detail below. It may be tempting to ascribe the emotional features of sensationalism—in its early days as later—to commercialism pure and simple, to the need to increase sales by arousing maximum interest.

Such explanations may have some validity, but they are not adequate. The assumption that commercial profit was the central motive behind these early productions is questionable. In sixteenth-century Germany, the income from such items must have repaid the efforts of printers, but it almost certainly brought little reward to authors. Sensationalist crime accounts, far from being historically uniform, differ substantially with time and place. The inspiration of their producers was not one-dimensional. An essential element in the emotional resonance of these works lay in their claim of truth.

Implicitly, these stories were not trivial or recreational like fiction, but rather should be taken seriously. The repeated emphasis on truth has been linked with oral traditions as well as with these developing genres whose veracious status was still in question. The combination of truth with appeals to the heart underlined the religious focus of these works. Virtually all crime accounts published during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries connected their stories with an edifying Christian message. While the crimes recounted in print tended to be only the most horrific, authors could point to the slippery slopes that led from seemingly minor infractions to the worst of crimes.

He had neglected his family, had run into debt, and had taken to drink—sins that set him on the path to murder. Although commentators on later sensationalism often dismiss the pious moralizing of authors,[30] the early clerical authors were undoubtedly sincere in their religious goals. The juridical conception of crime and punishment strongly paralleled the Christian scheme of sin. Redemption becomes possible only through the miraculous blood sacrifice of Christ, who takes on the inevitable punishment and overcomes it by his divine innocence.

Like sin, crime demands punishment and was in fact defined primarily by this characteristic. In early modern Germany, serious crimes were peinlich—that is, punishable by damage to the body of the offender. This basic scenario cut across confessional lines, even though both Catholic and Protestant authors sometimes used accounts of crime and punishment to drive home confession-specific messages.

Despite such differences of emphasis, the basic religious framework of sin and punishment underlay all crime narratives. Although little-known today outside the circle of specialists in German literature, Waldis was an active player in the religious, political, and cultural transformations of his day. He effectively juxtaposed the seeming normality of household routine with the sudden outbreak of horrific violence.

The narrative builds suspense and pathos by depicting the pursuit of each child in detail, complete with their direct speeches pleading for their lives. The scene of the first murder illustrates the intensity of his portrayal:. He got up and away did bound. The account traces her movements as, hatchet in hand, she searched in every corner and finally found him hiding behind a barrel.

With no escape possible, he pled for his life:. Waldis went on, in great circumstantial detail, to recount how she hacked until he was dead, then killed the other children just as gruesomely. Repeatedly he paused to point out how she lacked the pity that the audience feels for the children. Waldis used this emotionally charged crime story to promote a confessional message. The pamphlet reminded readers of the ever-present, prowling devil, warning that all are vulnerable to constant temptation.

Further, even the worst of sinners, like this murderous mother, could hope for salvation through faith. After attempting suicide, the mother lived long enough to repent, under Lutheran tutelage in the word of God:. Although Waldis was unusual among crime authors in his literary ability, his pamphlet encapsulates key features of sixteenth-century sensationalism. The patterns of emotional focus found in this pamphlet were widely repeated in crime accounts of the later sixteenth century and on into the seventeenth. Murder within the family was by far the most common theme, accounting for over half of the reports, not counting attacks on families that came from outside the household.

Among these familial killings, the murder of children appeared in two-thirds of the reports 42 of Multiple murder within the family became the most widely featured pattern of sensationalist reporting, with emphasis on violation of the ties of blood. Failures of parental care to the point of murder, or failures of discipline that allowed children to run wild and attack their parents, regularly received the blame. Even the most inherently shocking crimes, like these multiple familial murders, were not left to do their work of horrifying unaided but were reinforced by techniques of representation.

Although few authors were as virtuosic as Waldis, the emotive language, direct dialogue, building of suspense through circumstantial detail, and graphic description of bloody violence were common in the genre. The emotional appeals of these works regularly invoked the bonds that ought to exist between blood relations, as well as the tenderness for helpless children and pregnant women that should be felt by all but was violated by the killers.

Direct dialogue was especially likely to be placed in the mouths of victims, fostering a vivid reimagining of the scene and encouraging audience sympathy. The children offered simple gifts, promised good behavior, cried, or smilingly offered to play, in ways that strongly evoked childish innocence in the face of unthinkable horror. In a song from , a young man and a friend killed his guardian and the whole family in order to steal his inheritance. Direct personification conveyed immediacy and intensity in other cases, too. In a Basel killing of , a song account gave not only the words of the young female victim as she sought to dissuade her murderer, but also her thoughts:.

God will punish you for this. Accounts of multiple murders typically recounted each killing separately, with details of place and action. The killer moved inexorably from one room to the next; victims awoke at the noise of the first killings and ran to see what was the matter. Circumstantial description vividly recreated the scenes of violence.

Abundant detail could be offered in nonliterary form as well. Broadsides typically provided woodcut images that gave a literal depiction of the crimes, mirroring the textual account and sometimes surpassing it. Nonliterate consumers could reconstruct the essentials from the picture alone. Most artists were scrupulous about showing the precise weapons used, and they often illustrated specific wounds inflicted on the victims. Coloration, added by stenciling, could provide the red of blood.

In some cases, the level of depiction reached a surprisingly clinical completeness. The report of another dismemberment in provided a similar diagram. Authors attributed little mystery to the motives, often economic, behind such heinous crimes. Past a certain point, the devil seemed to drive them on to ever-greater crime. Their capture and punishment, usually described in detail, offered the assurance of retribution. In contrast to the sensationalism of later centuries, the perpetrators were usually not examined closely as individuals, nor was the audience offered vicarious entry into their minds.

As Daniel Cohen and Karen Halttunen have argued for the later gallows sermons of early America, the religious assumptions of this literature interpreted crime as resulting from inadequate curbs on general human sinfulness, rather than unique characteristics of the criminal. Although the treatment of criminal psychology may appear thin to modern sensibilities, the narratives of early sensationalism are thick with blood. The scenes overflowed with gore, as culprits seized such weapons as hatchets and cleavers with which to attack their families.

Crime accounts typically gave exact specifics on the number and location of the wounds—often messy mutilations, decapitations, even disembowelings. These killings involved no simple daggers to the heart, as in contemporary depictions of, for example, the suicide of the chaste Lucretia. Some pieces even attached pious songs on the blood and passion of Christ to their portrayals of criminal mayhem. The horrors of the bloody murders had religious connotations in their evocation of hellish disorder, as well as a political undercurrent in their implicit justification of the gruesome mutilations inflicted on the condemned at the time of execution.

Also political, of course, was the implicit or explicit endorsement of governmental authority in its role as crime fighter. Wolfgang Meyer, writing about the murders, dedicated his song to the Basel authorities and praised their efforts in glowing terms. Going further than most authors, he explicitly reminded the public that the government was the source of their peace and security and thus deserved their utmost loyalty.

A broadside about a murder in boasted of how its account bore the seal of the local judge, attesting to its veracity. The generic patterns I have been describing—particularly the emotive conventions that governed the portrayal of familial murders, but also the elements shared with crime reporting more broadly—suggest a powerful interplay among texts, audiences, and authors. Clearly, these texts were shaping broadly held expectations about how criminal violence was to be recounted and interpreted.

The pleading of the murdered children, for example, which to modern readers seems an odd interpolation of invented dialogue into supposedly factual narratives, was clearly accepted as a normal and even expected feature in accounts of familial murder. The published account offered a fairly standard familial killing, complete with direct speech of the young child begging for life, and of the repentant killer at his gruesome execution.

Only at the end did readers learn that the events took place over fifty years earlier, in Similarly, the case of the bloodthirsty daughter Magdalena, who killed her whole family, was reported as news from Flanders in and again more than twenty years later, in , as events in Moravia. The resonance of these texts extends to social, religious, and political arenas, in ways that respond to the events of their age but also preserve for the texts themselves a role in constructing contemporary social meanings.

The major outpouring of early sensationalist crime reports fell, perhaps not surprisingly, in a period of high crime in the second half of the sixteenth century. Nevertheless, the pattern coincides generally with an upsurge in crime, as well as with the growth of witchcraft prosecutions in the later sixteenth century. Although one cannot necessarily assume a correlation between high crime and high sensationalism, these accounts did emerge from an atmosphere charged with actual violence and fear.

Of course, the crimes featured in sensationalist accounts were not the most common, but rather those perceived as most horrifying. In the shapes these dangers took, in particular of damage to family, one can discern tensions related to social change. One might argue, perhaps, that blood ties, as the deepest of human bonds, are the natural ground for sensationalism.

In other historical settings, however, emotional weight could be placed elsewhere, such as on sexual or marital bonds. The focus on familial and particularly intergenerational ties sent powerful messages about perceived threats to social and especially familial order. Post-Reformation reformers, convinced of the central importance of the family, sought to boost parental power by such steps as outlawing clandestine marriages and requiring parental consent for marriage. Increased intergenerational tensions contributed to both the outbreak of familial violence and the intense interest in its portrayal.

The sensationalist portrayals of family violence dramatized the ways in which familial relations could go terribly, inhumanly wrong. Such accounts furthered confessional aims by encouraging a posture of fear in the face of unthinkably horrifying invasions of domestic and civic peace. Such ghastly realities, by implication, could not be countered by mere human means but underlined the need for repentance. And not only religion, but the right brand of religion, was needed to avert attack from the ever-prowling devil.

God is also called "the Grand Master of the Universe. Since, in fact, as I have already shown above II, p. See above, II , p. In the York Constitution all Christian-dogmatic assertions are carefully avoided, and friendship toward people of every religion expressly inculcated. The old document remains the same, the new one not; — This can not be called an improvement. Because, with the high understanding which he had received from God, and since God himself taught him to write, it can not be otherwise, than that he was concerned about lodging, and prescribe principles in all the other sciences still found necessary, so that his descendants too could do it accordingly.

Cain's son, Enoch , was particularly a great architect and astronomer. He saw in the stars that the world would once perish by water, and another by fire, and thus set up two great pillars, one of stone, the other of clay, on which he wrote the principles of the arts , so that the sciences of Adam and of his descendants would not be lost. But the notion: that God himself taught [the art of] writing to Adam, is not there.

Remarkable are here, however, not Bible-based, the mythical expressions: Enoch had been an astronomer, and had foreseen in the stars the destruction of the earth, which had been incorporated in B. That the Indians , perhaps, in even earlier times, as Enoch is positioned by Moses, have made the most accurate astronomical observations, though not exactly perfect as ours, but so precise, however, only to the extent their Holistic knowledge and theories of form mathematics alowed them, is known to anyone who has troubled himself with this part of the literature.

They were also called Seth's Pillars. By the way, this myth, with the exception of the prediction from the stars, is incorporated completely in all the editions of the CB. How widespread this legend has been in ancient times, is shown in the following passage from Rhode's work: the holy legend and the entire system of religion of the ancient Bactrians , Medes , and Persians , or of the Zend people Frankfurt, , p.

How generally widespread was this belief in antiquity, is also evident from the following passage in Josephus Antiquities, Book I, Chapter 3 : ""One has to thank the science of astrology for the genius and efforts of his Seth's children; and since Adam had told them that the world was to be destroyed once by water and once by fire, so, in order wrest this message cautiously from oblivion, they built two columns, in which they buried this message, handed down by Adam , etc. Tubalkain had already also the art of working in iron, Jubal the music, his sister, Naamah , the art of weaving, and his brother, Jabal , cattle-raising, land cultivation and [building] field huts, which were subsequently introduced into the war, and brought to perfection.

No doubt here are meant the Phoenicians; because Sorie , Sorien , Surien is the whole country between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates; also Syria, Phoenicia , etc. See Martiniere History of Asia! Also, the construction of the Ark in CB. After two generations after Noah, his descendants, proud of their knowledge, built in a plain of the land of Shinar [ Mesopotamia ] a great city and a high tower of lime, and stones, and wood, c in order to live together under the laws which their father, Noah, had made known to them, and to render immortal the names of the descendants of Noah.

This arrogance, however, did not pleased the Lord in heaven, the lover of humility; d therefore, before the tower was finished, he confused their language, and thereby scattered them into many uninhabited lands, where they brought their laws and arts, and then brought forth kingdoms and principalities; as the holy books manifoldly prove this. Subsequently, Euclid a collected the principal sciences, and called them Geometry. All together, however, the Greeks and Romans called them Architecture.

The Bible does not mention any wood; but in the 10th century England building were still built chiefly with wood. See the passage from Archaeol. IX, printed in IV , pp. Abraham builds tents, imparted his science to the Canaanites , and in a note on the margin reads: "The old Constitutions confirm firmly that the Noachids were great mathematicians and geometers and expatiated upon Adam's great experience in geometry, and that he had taught this to his disciples, but only to sons of freeborns.

In order to make the intermeddle of the Jewish traditions more comprehensible, I remind that the Oriental Christians, and also the Culdees, retained much more of the Judaism for their Christianity, than the Western Christians. This should not be here so early. Euclid, as far as we know, has written, besides his elements of geometry, other writings on music, optics, and mechanics; but what is told here about him is historically incorrect. From this by no means follows that these historical facts were not properly known to the draftsman of this document; because he could have made it his rule, merely to rectify the spelling mistakes and all too crude violations against the historical truth, all the rest, however, which have become especially valuable as a mythical guild tradition to "the good brothers," as well as the various ancient Latin, Greek and other manuscripts, which they presented to the perhaps scholarly draftsman as mentioned at the outset , might contain also innocent fallacy to be retained unchanged.

This mistake may have arisen because Vitruvius claims the general knowledge of all sciences by an architect. See IV p. Afterwards from there this art came into all distant lands; but only the signs given by the hands have remained in architecture; because only a few still know the signs [symbols] of figures. For only a few distinguishing signs can be made, even after speech interrelation, but also for the sake of not speaking, because from ancient times, too, there were signs which were not given with the hands. This art, of giving signs with the hands, was already highly developped by the Romans, and was thus already practiced by the Roman architects.

See, for example, Neue Acerra philologica, Halle , first piece, and the Engraving! But even in the Middle Ages it was common in monasteries. See here, on Bro. III, p. By figures, here seem to be meant hieroglyphic signs, which in the Middle Ages are still used occasionally by architects, and also by the Druids. I shall continue on this subject further below, in the treatise: On the historical relationship of the ancient masonic customs and symbolism to the doctrinal concepts of the Indians etc.

The evidence is scattered in the antiquarian-archaeological writings of the British, Scottish, Irish, and non-British writers, and my assertion is based, as far as the British Isles are concerned, on a series of monuments still existing there, of which, among others, I have given an instructive example in the fourth section p. It follows directly from this that the architects who built these monuments must have known this language. Those monuments fell into ruins mostly before the tenth century; therefore it could already be said at this time: "Only very few know the use of the figures [for symbolic language].

The more accurate knowledge of the Indian hieroglyphics, for which the vital key is still present in the holy writings of the Indian people and in the science of the Brahmins , and will be handed over to us through Colebrooke , and others, can perhaps, together with the Chinese linguistics, unlock the last barrier which still prevent us to accessing this sanctuary. One should, therefore, not superstitiously shudder before the term hieroglyph , as before a watchword for superstition.

Had the Masons brought about a healthy, well-formed hieroglyphical language , that is, a pure , from-sound-independent [not spoken] written language , they would have thereby earned the most vibrant gratitude of posterity. The reader should compare here what I have said in II, p. I also, as already mentioned above, have worked on this subject for many years, and believe to have solved the most essential part regarding this task. Dalgarn's , Maimieux's , and Schmid's latest attempts to form a Pasigraphy and Pasilaly are also worthy of recognition.

After the introduction of our document, in the Constitutions of , Anderson says: "From there from the Tigris and the Euphrates science and art were handed down to later times and to remote countries, despite the confusion of languages or dialects; because, if the development of these, like the proficiency and ancient art of the Masons to converse without sound language, and to recognize each other at some distance, may have existed, then in every colony the teaching of masonry and communication was not prevented in any particular way.

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  5. Entick has included this last observation as well. The design of the universal language, however, for sound and writing, is a supreme task of the erstwhile Human Covenant, because it is one such for the life of humanity itself. See: Ideal of Humanity , p. The humanity-minded historian therefore notices with joy, that not only all the primitive peoples of primitive times, especially the Indians, Chinese, Persians, Egyptians, and Celts, but also all those societies, which are to be regarded as the germs of the human covenant, have made with remarkable scientific experiments of the universal language , See Tagblatt der Menschheitleben , n.

    But they needed backed stones, and wood, and earth, in order to do this, therefore, when the pagan kings had learned this, they were compelled to make stones, lime, and bricks, and to construct buildings with them; but by the will of God, they became the more experienced artists, and so famous that their art spread to Persia.

    He generally brought architecture to perfection, because wisdom was in him. When Joshua had brought the tabernacle to Siloh , the priests ministered in it, and cultivated land, as it was cultivated in Egypt, and is still happening, b for the benefit of the people. Anderson has incorporated it with some alterations, but in between has interpolated several things about Egyptian science and art, e. The tale, that the Israelites had been made use of for building according to God's will, has been retained by A. These simple words lead Anderson to many strange assertions.

    After he has said in the edition, that in the desert it had pleased God to inspire Bezalel to build the Tabernacle, etc. As if one had had nothing else to worry about! But it is not allowed to mention more about this. But enough of it! By this means the Grand Lodge of the English Moderns has given room and nourishment to the addiction to secrecy and petty cleverness. See above p.

    See some pictures of several common farming tools in Strutt's Angleterre ancienne , Paris, , T.. In our first Craft document, we also find that agriculture is mentioned as a peculiar Masons' occupation I, p. But he mentions the cultivation of the land only in the edition. But the: "as it still happens" added here is one of the many inner proofs of the very old age of our document; for in the tenth century this really happened, but soon afterwards no more, or but little.

    Compare here what I have said from time to time about the second Culdeean monuments IV, p. From this time on, the art of building with lime, stones, and wood spread continually, and excelled in it especially the peoples of Phoenicia, while building the cities of Tire and Sidon, which afterwards their kings embellished through [the works of] their artists. Because the Phoenicians also distinguished themselves in sacred architecture, and had excellent builders, one of which, Sanchuniathon , who carried out [the construction of] the Temple of Dagon , an artistic, glorious and great sacred building, which, when sacrifices were offered to the false god, always contained 3, men.

    And it was so in other countries. Great and splendid buildings, however, have been found constructed everywhere in architecture; yet all have remained far back [not as splendid as] the holy temple b that King Solomon had built in Jerusalem in the honor of the true God, and to which, as we find in the sacred books, an immensely large number of workers were employed; and Hiram king of Tyre provided a number [of workers] as well.

    All these workers were divided into certain orders, which had been approved by King Solomon ; and so was founded for the first time in this great building a worthy venerable society of architects Societas architectonica. This short passage of: "They remained - - - justified," together with the following of "Presumably - - - mourned," has been extended in the and editions of the CB. I have compiled on the first sheet of the fourth section, the most noteworthy passages about the building of Solomon's temple in the various editions of the Book of Constitutions of the English Moderns, which I have promised above II, p.

    This enlightened Master was, there is not question about it the most experienced, most skilful and ingenious artist workman , who ever lived " etc. VIII, c. Such as were also expressions, as those cited, to be interpreted by persons in the knowing, of which so were some of the high-ranking founders of the English Moderns System!

    And One can see that Anderson positively transferred to the building of Solomon's Temple the institutions which here in the York Constitution are historically called Roman ; since the York Constitution , quite unbiased, on the page following says simply: " Probably even with so beautiful dispositions But it remained in force in these institutions [of the Greeks and Romans], that the craftsmen, depending on what they were working on, were divided into Collegia or Lodges, each of which had a master of the work Magister fabricae and several overseers [Wardens] ; with the result that the orders of the master of the work could be punctually obeyed; at the same time they had to care for the tools and materials, and every week the wages, as well as livelihood and clothing, properly provided.

    But apprentices were always to be attracted, so that they would never be in want of workers. Let us consider the treatise on Existence , [the Dasein ] included in the fourth section of this document, the constitution and the relation of the collegia and corporations in general, and the building corporations in particular among the Romans and among the Brittons under Roman domination IV, p. The admonition received from Bro. My treatise provides the historical proofs of all the assertions made in our document, especially here at pp.

    This concordance of our document with the results of a historical-critical investigation from the sources is the first intrinsic reason of the authenticity of this document, all the more so as this subject belonged, up to the most recent time, to the most neglected and dark one, and consequenly even Anderson , probably due to ignorance, did not appreciate, but rather omitted for the most part the passages of the York Constitutions which concern this important fact. But Anderson left so much out, that Bro.

    Schneider , by the hint of it, was vigilant about this point of history. That a similar institution had taken place at the building of Solomon's Temple, because of the nature of the matter, is presumable without historical superstitiousness, but not as the CB. The York Constitution lays down at its foundation the historically given constitution of the Roman Builders Lodges , and puts down a mere conjecture concerning the temple of Solomon: the CB. The method of the author of the York Constitution is more open, more instructive , and more useful.

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    As a result, the Grand Lodge of the English Moderns has incurred the accusation of pious fraud. See Nicolai , remarks on the History of the Romans, p. It can be seen already from this passage alone, which many others pronounce even more clearly, that the merit of the Grand Lodge of the English Moderns founded in , does not subsist in: " firstly , or, in a more exquisite sense, for having given the Masonic Fraternity a moral " I would rather say, a purely human "tendency.

    But nevertheless, it retained symbols and customs borrowed from architecture, in a fashion which can not longer endure in the future. See I, p. Anderson Constitutions, dealing with the building of Solomon temple gives this passage as follows: "Thus a firm foundation of perfect harmony was laid under the fraternity, which bound the Lodge with love and friendship; secrecy and prudence, morality, and sociality were well taught to every brother," These are lodge doctrines of the English Moderns System; see above, from Browne's Master Key, II, p.

    Presumably with equally beautiful arrangements, and by the many workers employed, the admirable work of Solomon, which could have involved 30, people, to the astonishment of all neighboring peoples, whose experts came to Jerusalem to behold it, was completed in 7 years and 6 months in its great and clever internal furnishings by Solomon, the wisest among men. They buried him in front of the temple, and he was mourned by all. See IV, pp. Anderson also in the edition, p. Hiram's death and grief are likewise mentioned, though for the first in C.

    But the extraordinary [method of] architecture applied at this holy place in Jerusalem thus spread. One of them, named Ninus , was brought on a Phoenician ship, along with his crew, to the western coasts; from where it had come, so that he became the first to bring the Oriental architecture there, from where it was subsequently spread to the western countries. The rest remained in Jerusalem, because they were still needed by King Solomon to build his palaces and other splendid buildings.

    When the York Constitution says: "among all peoples;" in the edit. Anderson also cites the history of the temple to Diana at Ephesus. Since we became more familiar with Indian and Egyptian literature and art in the last few decades, it is highly likely that sciences and arts have flourished in India, and in Northern Africa across Egypt, long before than, according to the Mosaic chronology, they must have originated in Western Asia ; especially when, as usual, the Mosaic time is calculated in the strictest sense of the word.

    It is not a dishonor to the authors of our document, that they did not know in their age what still could not be brought to historical clarity in our time. After Solomon's temple had stood for years, it was laid waste by Nebuchadnezzar. This [Chaldean king] also led many captured architects to Babylonia, and through them erected very splendid buildings there.

    These buildings, indeed, were by no means equal to the sacred architecture which had been employed under Solomon ; but the remarkable science of architecture was maintained and propagated in this way, until the great Cyrus afterwards ordered the Jews to return to Jerusalem, and gave orders to Zerubbabel to rebuild the holy temple in the former place. Cyrus died during the construction; the building, however, after having been built for twenty years, was brought to completion under Darius and the building festival was celebrated.

    This temple, too, was such a splendid edifice that even the enemies of the Jews marvelled whether or not it did not equal the first temple. In the edit. Zerubbabel's temple stood up to Antony and Octavius's time, when Herod , their viceregent, tore it down, and in the same place rebuilt the third temple , also incredibly splendid, in Greek architecture, and by Greek builders.

    It was built in nine years six months by many workers employed therein, before the building festival was celebrated. From now on, the English Moderns' CB. At that time architecture had already spread out to the West through the seafaring of the Phoenicians, who were trading everywhere across the sea; a it had already attained a high degree of perfection in Greece; and we find many splendid large buildings in Athens and all Greece, to which the Solomonic temple, after having been admired by all neighboring peoples, had primarily given occasion. But now the Romans engaged in seafaring to the West, and they came to Greece and to the East.

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    Pythagoras , the Greek, in particular, made an outstanding contribution to architecture. He traveled to Egypt and Syria, and everywhere he went it flourished. He was accepted into the lodges, and, after his return, he then went by ship to Magna Grecia , lived there, and became very famous as a wiseman, he also instituted at Crotona the great school of world wisdom and architecture, and was the inventor of many fundamental doctrines, which later were incorporated into geometry. He had many pupils, who subsequently also emerged as wise, and also famous, and inventors of so many principles, until the famous Euclid of Tire brought them together, and wrote a book which all the Masterbuilders must understand.

    Euclid is not in the Cathechism, in which he should be responded briefly, but is probably mentioned in the old ritual p. It is also remarkable that in the cathechism it is said: "He formed a great lodge," and here: "The great school of world wisdom, and of architecture. The CB. Here under Pythagoras, however, is to be understood another person, important to the Grand Mastership of the English Moderns, probably Christopher Wren. This is certainly not an empty assumption; because in the written defense against Prichard , authored by Anderson , is attached a letter praising this defense; this letter is signed with the name: Euclid , and p.

    This is one of the " useful Hints " announced by Anderson himself in the Preface to C. See here, p. I, Prop. One can see from this what importance the Grand Lodge of the English Moderns put on this passage, and that it conceals another meaning behind it. The Pythagorian square, and the above-mentioned theorem, play a major role in mystical philosophy. Euclid is already lauded in the edition; but the passage of the York Constitution : that his book had to be understood by all the builders, was omitted. In the edition, he already appears in a quite different role see p.

    From the apposition of our document: "which all builders must understand," it is evident that Euclid's elements, as well as, according to the following, the Vitruvius's Architecture, were in the Middle Ages a lodge handbook for masters. After Euclid all the sciences were steadily brought forth, and divided into grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. But since it was always difficult to be an architect, architecture was held in honor among the Greeks; inasmuch as it was to be learned only by freeborns , not by slaves.

    Incidentally, this passage fully contains Vitruvian teachings. The Alexandrine school laid the foundation for the division into seven sciences; and among the "other sciences of the Romans" is to be understood all that Vitruvius further demanded from architects, for example, geography, jurisprudence, health sciences, history, etc. See especially IV, p.

    The former therefore had to have those skills [knowledge] ; the rest, with the exclusion of the Laborers, only needed to understand geometry. In both " Geometry " is printed in boldface. In the edition it is said: " Archimedes , whom the ancient Masons call the noble and excellent Grand Master of Syracuse. The Romans brought their sciences and arts from Etruria, Greece, Egypt, and Asia; and through their wars gained the closer acquaintance with them.

    They always led [captive] famous and clever people into their city, and their learned people then also traveled to those lands and came back again. Thus, Rome gradually became the headquarters of all erudition, which finally reached its highest goal under the Emperor August , because he promoted them so much; and because the Messiah was born under his reign, it was subsequently also the first capital in the West, in which the gospel was rooted from the East. In the edition is found on p. In our document it is said quite simply: "Because the Messiah was born.

    Anderson says instead: "Under whose reign God's Messiah , the great architect of the Church, was born;" and in "The Word became flesh , or the " Lord Jesus Christ Immanuel was born, the great architect or grand master of the Christian Church;" — passage which Entick has also retained. A new proof that the care with which the York Constitution avoids all church doctrines has not been observed by Anderson and his successors! The excellent architect Vitruvius was especially famous in Rome under this Emperor Augustus , who gave him a salary, and by whom so many splendid buildings were built. Perhaps the above "by whom" is to be understood as "by his writings.

    Here, however, the name Vitruvius refers to an English architect, and generally all the names of the architects and philosophers, who appear in the books of constitutions of the English Moderns, are implicitly understood as the lodges names of famous Masons; although the time sequence seems to have been not strictly observed.

    Since Vitruvius also recommends philosophy, so the Stoic philosophy could be more readily accepted by the architects. If Anderson had been followed, perhaps a historian would have recognized earlier: that Roman architecture, Roman lodge constitution and lodge liturgy, as well as Roman philosophy and morality, are historically proven elements of the origin and formation of the Masonic Institution.

    Da vielmehr, wie ich schon oben II, S. Siehe oben II , S. In der York. Brief an die Ebrer 11, 5. Jud v. Wie allgemein verbreitet dieser Glaube im Alterthum war, geht auch aus folgender Stelle beim Josephus Antiquitt. Siehe Martiniere Gesch. Auch wird der Bau der Arche in CB. Siehe die in IV. IX, sowie die dort S. Siehe z. Schriften usw. III, S. Jene Denkmale fallen meist vor das zehnte Jahrhundert; daher konnte schon damals gesagt werden: "den Gebrauch der Figuren kennen nur Wenige noch.

    Auch E. Siehe: Urbild der Menschheit S. Pyramiden, Labyrinth usw. Nachdem er in B. Doch genug hiervon! Hierdurch hat die NG. Siehe oben S. Alle diese Arbeiter waren in gewisse Ordnungen eingetheilt, welche K. Buches, welche ich oben II. Chifern sind, und noch dazu in verschiedenen Zeiten und in verschiedenen Stellen verschiedene Personen bedeuten. Die vom Br. Diese meine Abhandlung liefert die geschichtlichen Beweise aller einselnen Behauptungen, welche in unserer Urkunde, besonders hier S.

    Schneider durch Dessen Winke auf diesen Punkt der Geschichte aufmerksam wurde. Die Y. Das Verfahren der Verfasser der YC. Siehe I, S. Anderson giebt diese Stelle so: C. Master Key, II, S. Man begrub ihn vor den Tempel, und von Allen wurde er betrauert. Siehe IV, S. Auch A. Hiram's Tod und Trauer wird ebenfalls, zuerst jedoch in C. Wenn die YC. Auch bringt A. Man baute, ehe man das Baufest feiern konnte, 9 Jahre 6 Monate, durch sehr viele Arbeiter, daran.

    Vonnunan wird das Neuenglische CB. Besonders hatte sich Pythagoras , der Grieche, um die Baukunst verdient gemacht. Siehe Athelstan's Gesetze in Wilkinsii legg. Das CB. Hier wird aber unter Pythagoras eine andere, dem NE. Siehe hier S. Man sieht hieraus, welches Gewicht das NG.

    Und wenn wirklich unter Pythagoras im NE. Euklid wird schon in B. Weil es aber immer schwer war, Architekt zu seyn, so ward die Architektur bei den Griechen auch in Ehren gehalten; indem sie nur von Freigebornen, nicht von Knechten, erlernt werden durfte. Siehe in IV, S. Geographie, Rechtkunde, Gesundheitlehre, Geschichte usw. In unserer Urkunde steht ganz einfach: "weil der Messias geboren wurde. Die Stelle: "so ward sie hernach — schlug," hat CB.

    Vielleicht ist Obiges "durch den" so zu verstehen: "durch Dessen Schrift. Bei A. Da Vitruvius auch Philosophie empfiehlt, so konnte die stoische Philosophie bei den Architekten umso eher Eingang finden. This architecture, however, came to Britain in this form through Italian and Gallic architects. Only in the Edition he has captioned here a section entitled " The Revival of Architecture or of the Augustan Style ," whereby he systematically: "includes the general History of Masonry around the World;" then follows the second main section Part II , the history of masonry in Britain from Julius Caesar up to the unification of the Crowns in ; where he again makes the subordinate periods, 1 up to the arrival of the Saxons , 2 up to William the Conqueror , etc.

    The history of Roman architecture in Britain is briefly but correctly indicated in the Edition; in the one of have been added several individual pieces of information, which have finally been considerably increased in the Edition. What is given in our York Constitution has largely disappeared in , but carefully followed in and individually pursued in the Edition. Having said that, in the Book of Constitutions of the English Moderns the history of Roman architecture is not observed and carried out so thoroughly and not quite from the sources, as the importance of the subject deserves it.

    Much remains to the historian to be done here. I have produced in IV, pp. Schneider , and investigated by myself after him. Since this treatise is a coherent explanation of the following passages of our York Constitution, I will spare many remarks untill there, and I shall be more brief here. Anderson says quite correctly in the edition, p. Albanus , a worthy Roman knight , embraced the Craft because he had grown fond of it, and loved the workers and greatly supported them. He established institutions and stipulated charges [duties] among the masons, and taught them the customs; b everything that Amfiabalus had taught him.

    In here seems to me lies a clear trace of an already existing ritual; all the more so, since a hint occurred already earlier p. A Roman custom has remained with us in the "offering wine to the Genius. But Amfiabalus was a Christian, also a teacher of Christianity to Alban ; the customs which he taught to the masons, therefore, would hardly have been Roman-pagan; I suppose instead that he primarily brought Christian doctrines into the teachings and social organization of the building corporations.

    The authors of our document, on the other hand, still knew quite well the real history of Amfiabalus. See IV , p. Alban's in Herfordshire , through the worthy knight Alban. Alban was the first to suffer the martyr death in Britain. The old Constitutions assert, and the English Ancient Masons take it for granted, that Carausius urged the Holy Alban : to surround the town of Verulam with a stone rampart, and to build a beautiful palace for him; which is why this British king appointed the holy Alban as his housekeeper, [Steward, majordomo ] and to first minister of the empire.

    The holy Alban also loved the masons greatly, and did much good to them; he gave them a very good pay, namely, two shillings a week, and three pence for their food; whereas before, until St. Alban made it better, throughout the whole country a mason received only one penny a day and his food. He also obtained from the king a charter for the Freemasons to hold a general meeting council , to which he gave the name of an Assembly ; and of this he himself was Grandmaster, helped make masons, and gave them good laws charges and regulations.

    It is said in it: "An old manuscript owned by Nicholas Stone , a skilful sculptor under Inigo Jones , which, together with many others, was destroyed in the year , and contained the following context. Alban loved Masons well, and cherished them much, and made their pay right good; for he gave them Alban mended itt.

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    And he gott them a charter from the King and his counsell, for to hold a general Counsell and gave itt to name Assemblie. Now, If Anderson has drawn from this source, and not directly from the York Constitution , then the fault of the mutilation does not fall entirely upon him. In this important passage the the Grand Lodge of the English Moderns has allowed to subjugate its Constitution, adopted since , to the ancient document, and, wherever it wanted, to twist its words, in order to suit the purposes of its system.

    In doing that, however, the true doctrine in our passage has been totally obliterated. Because from our York Constitution we learn the following facts, important for the history of Freemasonry: 1 That the Roman Builders Corporations collegia fabrorum were not so perfected in Britain as in Rome, and even in its older provinces. It is said, " now also in Britain. But Alban "loved the workers operarios very much," gave them the constitution and the rights of a society in the whole empire, gave them a guarantee [Privilege] from the king, and had this society governed by the architects according to new laws and ordinances.

    We also learn 2 That it was sought to form and to keep together the society of workers or workmen governed by the Architects through customs , among which, from this time on, were perhaps Christian ones. This fact must have been particularly important to the writers of our York Constitution; for they too were with Alban and Amfiabalus in the same situation; they, too, wanted and ought to give "the good brothers" workers a new, sociable, legal constitution, guaranteed by the king, and thereby based theirs on the Alban's Constitution.

    We also hear 3 That the workers operarii , as we learn from other places, under certain conditions were formally initiated as brothers in that One Society through the whole kingdom, and indeed by the prominent architects of this society. Incidentally, it can not be surprising that St.